Social Psychological Bulletin <p><strong>Social Psychological Bulletin</strong> (Psychologia Społeczna) is an open-access quarterly no-APC journal (free for both reader and authors), that publishes original empirical research, theoretical review papers, scientific debates, and methodological contributions in the field of basic and applied social psychology. The SP Bulletin actively promotes standards of open-science, supports an integrative approach to all aspects of social psychological science and is committed to discussing timely social issues of high importance.</p> <p><strong><span class="jh_lable">Publication types:</span></strong>&nbsp;Research article, Review article, Short communication, Methods, Data paper, Forum paper, Editorial, Corrigendum, Book review</p> <p><strong><span class="jh_lable">Indexed:</span></strong>&nbsp;<a href="">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Altmetric</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">CNKI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Dimensions</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">EBSCOhost</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Google Scholar</a>, J-Gate,&nbsp;<a href="">Mendeley</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Microsoft Academic</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Naviga (Suweco)</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">OCLC WorldCat</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">OpenAIRE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">OpenCitations</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">POL-Index</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Publons</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">QOAM (Quality Open Access Market)</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">ReadCube</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Transpose</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichsweb™</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Unpaywall</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">WanFang Data</a></p> <p><strong><span class="jh_lable">Archived:</span></strong>&nbsp;<a href="">CLOCKSS</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">PsychArchives</a></p> en-US (Michal Parzuchowski & Marcin Bukowski) (PsychOpen Support Team) Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 OJS 60 Contingencies of Self-Worth and Global Self-Esteem Among College Women <p>The study examined the relative importance of seven contingencies of self-worth of Polish college women's (appearance, others' approval, competition, academic competencies, family support, virtue, God's love), as well as the associations between preference for particular contingencies and global self-esteem. Additionally, the predictive role of the self-assignment of masculine and feminine traits for both contingencies of self-worth and global self-esteem was investigated. The participants were one hundred and ninety-four Polish women in emerging adulthood (aged from 19 to 26; M = 21.36; SD = 1.67). Participants provided self-reports of self-ascription of masculine and feminine traits, the contingencies of self-worth, and self-esteem. Obtained results showed that the family support contingency of self-worth was the most preferred one, followed by virtue contingent self-worth, academic competencies, competition, and appearance contingencies of selfesteem, while the less preferred contingencies were: others' approval and God's love. Appearance and others’ approval contingencies of self-worth correlated negatively with self-esteem. Masculine traits were positively linked to competition contingency of self-worth, but negatively to physical appearance self-worth contingency and others’ approval self-worth contingency, whereas feminine traits were positively correlated with both physical appearance self-worth contingency and others’ approval self-worth contingency. The findings showed the positive associations between selfascription of traits regarded to be masculine and self-esteem, and a lack of significant associations between self-description of feminine traits and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling demonstrated predictive role of masculine traits for self-esteem when feminine traits’ selfascription and contingencies of self-worth were controlled.</p> Eugenia Mandal, Marcin Moroń Copyright (c) 2019 Eugenia Mandal, Marcin Moroń Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Are Women Perceived as Worse Magicians Than Men? <p>We present two experiments investigating the effect of the perceived gender of a magician on the perception of the quality of magic tricks. In Experiment 1, tricks performed by an allegedly female magician were considered worse than those by an allegedly male magician. In Experiment 2, participants had to generate possible solutions to how the tricks were done. Under these conditions, male participants were better at explaining the tricks, but the gender effect found in Experiment 1 disappeared. We discuss the gender bias in Experiment 1 and the lack of bias in Experiment 2 in terms of specific social and cognitive mechanisms (e.g., cognitive dissonance).</p> Pascal Gygax, Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean, Gustav Kuhn Copyright (c) 2019 Pascal Gygax, Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean, Gustav Kuhn Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 The Impact of Non-Standard Work Arrangements and Communication Climate on Organisational and Team Identification and Work-Related Outcomes Amongst Millennials in Chile and the UK <p>Previous research has found inconsistent results on the impact of work-status (permanent vs. fixed term vs. causal work) on attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. This study explored this topic from a social identity perspective and examines the effect of communication climate, organisational and team identification on job-affective well-being, organisational commitment and intentions to recommend. In Study 1, 631 professionals working in Chile completed our survey. In Study 2, which was pre-registered, 520 professionals from the UK completed the same survey. In both studies we conducted multi-group path analyses comparing employees with three work-statuses: permanent, fixed-term, and casual workers (Study 1: n = 369, 129, and 131, respectively; Study 2: n = 438, 53, and 34, respectively). We found work-status influenced the relationship between organisational and team identification with job-affective well-being, but not with organisational citizenship behaviour or intentions to recommend. Across all groups, communication climate was an important predictor for identification measures, job-affective well-being and intention to recommend. These findings offer an understanding of the dynamics of social identification in the workplace that are related to work-status in the context of two different countries; Chile, a country that is characterised by high rates of fixed-term and casual job agreement and the UK, which has comparatively fewer non-standard work-arrangements.</p> Ilka H. Gleibs, Andrea Lizama Alvarado Copyright (c) 2019 Ilka H. Gleibs, Andrea Lizama Alvarado Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Self-Esteem Relates to Expecting Others to See Us How We See Ourselves <p>We examined whether self-esteem relates to coherence between self-evaluations and anticipated evaluations by others. In two studies (total N = 279), participants twice completed a measure of their personal attributes, once from their own standpoints and once from the perspective of someone they anticipated meeting, separated by a 25-minute distractor task. Supporting our preregistered predictions, the within-person association between self- and other-ratings was stronger as a function of between-person increases in self-esteem. These effects remained after statistically controlling for self-concept clarity and for fear of negative evaluation, both of which related meaningfully to self-esteem. Together, these findings indicate that persons high in selfesteem anticipate that others will evaluate them consistently with how they evaluate themselves.</p> Ashley M. Araiza, Antonio L. Freitas Copyright (c) 2019 Ashley M. Araiza, Antonio L. Freitas Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Situational Factors Influencing Receptivity to Bullshit <p>Individuals are motivated to maintain a sense of meaning, and enact cognitive processes to do so (e.g., perceiving structure in the environment). This motivation to find meaning may ultimately impact humans’ interpretation of "bullshit", statements intended to convey profundity without any meaning. Conversely, subtle cues threatening the meaningfulness of bullshit may elicit greater skepticism. Three studies tested situational factors predicted to heighten or diminish susceptibility to bullshit by changing motivations to seek meaning. We employed diverse methods including symbolic meaning threat (Study 1), social exclusion (Cyberball; Study 2), and manipulating cognitive fluency (Study 3). Taken together, the results indicate basic processes shaping the detection of meaning have implications for the appraisal of ambiguously insightful information.</p> Mitch Brown, Lucas A. Keefer, Shelby J. McGrew Copyright (c) 2019 Mitch Brown Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Freedom, Freedom... but What Kind of Freedom? <p>In theoretical considerations on democracy freedom is sometimes understood in unconditional and conditional terms. This general distinction underlies I. Berlin's concept of negative and positive freedom, and E. Fromm's concept of 'freedom from' and 'freedom to'. The authors of this paper introduce the concept of extrinsic and intrinsic sense of freedom which is meant to be psychological representation of the philosophical distinction on unconditional and conditional freedom, respectively. An extrinsic freedom results from a lack of external restrictions/barriers, whereas intrinsic freedom is based on the belief that being free means compatibility between one's own actions and preferred values, life goals or worldview. Based on nationwide survey data, the authors show that both forms of freedom are embedded in entirely different basic human values and moral intuitions. Further, it is shown that intrinsic freedom negatively predicts liberal orientation and clearly favors communitarian orientation, whereas extrinsic freedom clearly favors liberal orientation. The authors argue that both forms of experiencing freedom have different effects on support for the principles of liberal democracy. The positive effect of extrinsic freedom is indirect, i.e., entirely mediated by liberal orientation. On the other hand, the effect of intrinsic freedom can be decomposed into three components: a) as a positive direct effect, b) as a positive indirect effect (by strengthening the communitarian orientation), and c) as a negative indirect effect (by weakening the liberal orientation). In conclusion, the consequences of intrinsic and extrinsic freedom are discussed in the light of their relationships with support for democratic principles.</p> Piotr Radkiewicz, Krystyna Skarżyńska Copyright (c) 2019 Piotr Radkiewicz, Krystyna Skarżyńska Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Can Virtual Observers Affect Our Behavior? <p>The social facilitation effect describes the change in the performance of the task under the influence of the presence of observers. The effect itself consists of two components: social facilitation in simple tasks and social inhibition in complex tasks. In the context of the dynamic development of new technologies, the question of the possible influence on human behavior by virtual characters gains importance. We attempted to critically describe and summarize current research on social facilitation in order to answer the question of whether it occurs in virtual environments. We found 13 relevant studies, 3 of which demonstrated social facilitation, 4 social inhibition and 1 demonstrated the whole effect. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are ambiguous. Firstly, we identified that 12 out of 13 analyzed studies failed to show the whole effect. Secondly, we encountered several shortcomings of the summarized research that further complicated its interpretation. The shortcomings: presence of the researcher, unclear usage of “agent” and “avatar”, evaluation of activation, no pilot tests of observers and no description of how their characteristics are generated, among others, are discussed. Furthermore, we investigated the effect sizes and their variability. The average effect size for social facilitation was g = 0.18, CI [-0.28; 0.64] and for social inhibition g = -0.18, CI [-0.40; 0.04]. In social facilitation, a substantial level of heterogeneity was detected. Finally, we conclude that it is still too early to provide a definite answer to the question of whether social facilitation exists in Virtual Environments. We recommend limiting evaluation activation to the lowest possible level, conducting pilot tests prior to the experiment, avoiding the presence of the researcher in the experimental room and a clear distinction of “agent” and “avatar”, as measures to achieve a better quality in future research.</p> Radosław Sterna, Paweł Strojny Copyright (c) 2019 Radosław Sterna, Paweł Strojny Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800