Test of the Bifactor Model of Job-Related Affective Well-Being

Mariola Laguna, Emilia Mielniczuk, Wiktor Razmus


The multidimensional measure of the job-related affective well-being developed by Warr (1990) is a frequently used tool estimating affect in the work context. Alternative factorial models of this measure were tested in previous studies. Recently a bifactor model has been proposed as alternative factorial structure recommended for multifaceted constructs. It allows capturing the global aspect of the construct along with the specificity of its subdimensions. We conducted two studies to test a bifactor model on Warr’s measure and to compare it to factor models proposed in earlier studies. This bifactor model identified one general factor in addition to four unique factors. Two studies were conducted among employees (Study 1; N = 869) and entrepreneurs (Study 2; N = 204). Results of both studies corroborate a four correlated factors model as superior to the bifactor model. The model with four unique but correlated factors representing anxiety, comfort, depression, and enthusiasm is a good representation of job-related affective well-being measured by Warr’s instrument, both in a sample of employees and entrepreneurs.


affect; well-being; bifactor model; employees; entrepreneurs

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