Workplace Bullying and Occupational Stress Among University Teachers: Mediating and Moderating Factors


  • Naima Akhtar Malik
  • Kaj Björkqvist


In the study, it is explored whether exposure to workplace bullying predicts symptoms of occupational stress, and whether this association is mediated by interpersonal relationships, and moderated by sex and nationality. A sample of 610 university teachers from Pakistan (196 males, 133 females) and Finland (152 males, 129 females) completed an online questionnaire. A conditional process model was applied using the PROCESS programme. Workplace bullying served as predictor, stress symptoms as predicted variable, relationships with (a) colleagues and (b) family as mediators, and sex and country as moderators. As expected, workplace bullying had a significant effect on stress symptoms, which was mediated by family relationships but not by relationships with colleagues. Neither sex nor country had a moderating effect. Positive family relationships thus mediate the stressful impact of workplace bullying, and this was the case for both sexes and both nationalities.