Measuring Difficulties in Choosing an Upper Secondary School: Validating of the Parental Expectations, Confusion, Anxiety and Suitability Scale (PeCAS Scale)


  • Diego Boerchi


This study was aimed to develop a new questionnaire, on school choice difficulties, with a limited number of items and scales to make it suitable both for pre-screening on large numbers of students and studies which use batteries of many tests. The PeCAS Scale assesses four dimensions, Parental expectations, Confusion, Anxiety, and Suitability, which could be considered the most essential according to previous literature. In total, 1495 students participated in the study. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-dimensional factor structure. Reliability and concurrent validity, concerning the process of choosing a school and a scale on career exploration, were also adequate.