Energy-Saving Behaviours in Workplaces: Application of an Extended Model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour


  • Luigina Canova
  • Anna Maria Manganelli


Individual energy-saving behaviours are crucial for reducing energy consumption, and research on the determinants of these behaviours has been increasing over the last decade. The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of two specific behaviours: ‘switching off non-essential lights’ and ‘completely switching off electronic devices’. An extended model of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been used as the theoretical research framework. The extension was implemented by considering two components (affective and cognitive) of the attitude towards these behaviours and then adding habit as a new variable. A two-waves study was conducted in which a convenience sample of Italian workers completed a questionnaire measuring the TPB constructs in relation to the two energy-saving behaviours (Time 1). The participants then completed another questionnaire a month later to assess self-reports of these behaviours (Time 2). The inclusion of habit improved the predictive power of the TPB, and the extended model was found to explain 65.5% and 76.1% of the variance in intentions and 16.2% and 22.9% of the variance in behaviours. Cognitive attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit were significantly related to intentions, and perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor. Habit moderated some relationships between the TPB constructs and intentions. Behaviours were associated directly only with intentions. The results of this study support the efficacy of the TPB model in predicting target behaviours; they also suggest some strategies that can be followed to promote these energy-saving behaviours.