Shame and Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis


  • Yohanes Budiarto
  • Avin Fadilla Helmi


Scholars agree that shame has many effects related to psychological functioning declines, and one among others is the fluctuation of self-esteem. However, the association between shame and self-esteem requires further studies. Heterogeneity studies due to different measurements, various sample characteristics, and potential missing research findings may result in uncertain conclusions. This study aimed to explore the relationship between shame and self-esteem by meta-analysis to come up with evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias of the study. Eighteen studies from the initial 235 articles involving the term shame and self-esteem were studied using the random-effects model. A total of 578 samples were included in the study. The overall effect size estimate between shame and self-esteem (r = −.64) indicates that shame correlates negatively with self-esteem and is large effect size. The result showed that heterogeneity study was found (I² = 95.093%). The Meta-regression showed that age moderated the relationship between shame and self-esteem (p = .002), while clinical sample characteristics (p = .232) and study quality (p = .184) did not affect the overall effect size.